Data standards in Dandjoo


Making biodiversity data more searchable and usable.

Part of Dandjoo

About data standards

Dandjoo brings data from many different people and organisations together. This means that when data arrives at BIO for ingestion it may contain a variety of different fields and be structured quite differently from submission to submission.

Incoming data needs to be standardised so it can be represented consistently in Dandjoo and be combined and searched by data users. Dandjoo does this by allowing key fields in data submitted to be mapped to widely recognised biodiversity data standards.


The Darwin Core standard

Darwin Core is the first biodiversity data standard to be incorporated into Dandjoo, and BIO is currently reviewing other standards (such as VegX) for inclusion in future releases.

Darwin Core is an internationally recognised standard that supports management and sharing of biodiversity data, and defines a glossary of terms in a flat structure to represent taxon, occurrences, specimens, and samples.



Darwin Core fields used in Dandjoo

When users export search results from Dandjoo, the export will contain the Darwin Core fields shown in the table below. 

Some fields may be blank for some records - this means that the submitter who provided a record did not collect or upload data for that field, or may not have mapped the field during data submission. However, all submitters must provide certain core fields to show an organism’s name, and to indicate where and when it was observed.


Dandjoo Field Darwin Core Property Name Darwin Core Property Description
Recognised Scientific Name dwc:acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the currently valid (zoological) or accepted (botanical) taxon. (Note: In Dandjoo, this is BIO’s determination of the most recently-known current name of the organism observed.)
Field Scientific Name dwc:scientificName The full scientific name. When forming part of an Identification, this should be the full name, including the lowest level taxonomic rank that can be determined. (Note: In Dandjoo, this is the taxonomic name originally provided by the data submitter, after curation to address any errors.)
Date observed/Date collected dwc:eventDate The date-time on which an Event occurred. For occurrences, this is the date-time when the event was observed. Not suitable for a time in a geological context.
Submitter dwc:institutionCode The name (or acronym) in use by the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record. (Note: In Dandjoo, this is the organisation that had custody of the information in the record, and submitted it to Dandjoo.)
Rights Holder dwc:rightsHolder The person or organization owning or managing rights over the record. (Note: In Dandjoo, this is the submitter in most cases.)
Latitude dwc:decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the WGS84 (EPSG:4326) system) of the geographic centre of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
Longitude dwc:decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the WGS84 (EPSG:4326) system) of the geographic centre of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.

dc:title  (Note: from the Dublin Core standard)

A name given to the resource. (Note: In Dandjoo, this is the dataset name provided by the submitter.)
Count dwc:individualCount The number of individuals present at the time of the Occurrence.
Method/Protocol dwc:samplingProtocol The names of, references to, or descriptions of the methods or protocols used during an Event.
Conservation Status (authorized users only) threatStatus  (Note: from the GBIF Darwin Core Extension: Species Distribution) Conservation status of a species.  (Note: This is populated and updated in Dandjoo based on the most recent threatened and priority species lists maintained by the Western Australian Government.)
Identification basis (e.g. fossil, live specimen) dwc:basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record. e.g. Fossil, live specimen etc.
Field identification (original field name) dwc:verbatimIdentification A string representing the taxonomic identification as it appeared in the original record.
Date identified (if different to occurrence date) dwc:dateIdentified The date on which the subject was determined as representing the Taxon.
Identification Ambiguity dwc:identificationQualifier A brief phrase or a standard term ("cf.", "aff.") to express the determiner's doubts about the Identification.
Identification notes dwc:identificationRemarks Comments or notes about the Identification.
Collector dwc:recordedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of the globally unique identifier for the person, people, groups, or organizations responsible for recording the original occurrence. Recommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with “space vertical bar space” ( | ).
Identified by dwc:identifiedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organizations who assigned the Taxon to the subject. Recommended best practice is to separate the values in a list with “space vertical bar space” ( | ).
Human observation ID dwc:occurrenceID An identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occurrence). In the absence of a persistent global unique identifier, construct one from a combination of identifiers in the record that will most closely make the occurrenceID globally unique.
Specimen ID dwc:materialSampleID A physical result of a sampling (or subsampling) event. In biological collections, the material sample is typically collected, and either preserved or destructively processed.
Dataset ID dwc:datasetID An identifier for the set of data. May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to a collection or institution. Free text
Scientific name publisher dwc:scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientific name formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclatural code.
Taxonomic Rank (e.g. species, subspecies, variety) dwc:taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName.
Organism Remarks dwc:organismRemarks Comments or notes about the Organism instance.
Presence/Absence dwc:occurrenceStatus A statement about the presence or absence of a Taxon at a Location.
Preparations (e.g. ethanol, dried) dwc:preparations A list (concatenated and separated) of preparations and preservation methods for a specimen.
Genomic sequence information dwc:associatedSequences A list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, global unique identifier, URI) of genetic sequence information associated with the Occurrence.
Life Stage (e.g. juvenile, nymph) dwc:lifeStage The age class or life stage of the Organism(s) at the time the Occurrence was observed.
Reproductive State (e.g. pregnant, flowering) dwc:reproductiveCondition The reproductive condition of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence.
Native/introduced/feral dwc:establishmentMeans Statement about whether an organism or organisms have been introduced to a given place and time through the direct or indirect activity of modern humans.
Geographic uncertainty (m) dwc:coordinateUncertaintyInMeters The horizontal distance (in meters) from the given decimal-Latitude and decimal-Longitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location. Leave the value empty if the uncertainty is unknown, cannot be estimated, or is not applicable (because there are no coordinates). Zero is not a valid value for this term.
Area/locality of occurrence (e.g. 200km north of Perth) dwc:locality The specific description of the place. (Note: This is a free text field that does not correspond to a specific geography or list of regions.)
Habitat dwc:habitat A category or description of the habitat in which the Event occurred.

Project Blog


To enhance value of data for users the following additional data attributes have been added to the data exports to better assist in data filtering.


We have been working hard and now bring you two new ways to search in Dandjoo. These are Kingdom search and Latitude & Longitude search.


From March 2024, Dandjoo will produce a species list for an area of interest inclusive of all known species that has been evident within the area of interest through observation and survey.

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Map of Western Australia with location points plotted